Bird Families

PRIMITIVE SPARROW

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In the book version

Volume 27. Moscow, 2015, pp. 497-498

Copy bibliographic reference:

PRIMITIVE SPARROWS (Menurae), a suborder (according to another system, parvorder: lat. Parvus - small, small) birds neg. passerines. Includes quite sharply different families of birds-lyre, or lyrebirds (Menuridae), and shrub birds, or atrichiae (Atrichornitidae), each of them has 1 genus and 2 species: respectively, small (Menura alberti) and large, or magnificent, bird- lyre (M. novaehollandiae), red (Atrichornis rufescens) and noisy (A. clamosus) shrub birds. Endemics of Australia, inhabiting coastal, including mountain, forests and shrubs of the southeast. (3 types) and southwest. (A. clamosus) parts of the continent. The wings are short, rounded, the primary flight feathers are 11, the tail feathers are 12–16, the legs and toes are long, the claws are weakly curved, the lateral horny shields on the tarsus are located obliquely. There are 14 cervical vertebrae, the larynx is tracheobronchial, 2-3 pairs of vocal muscles are well developed. The blind intestines are rudimentary. They spend most of the day on the ground, walk well and run fast, fly little. They eat a lot. invertebrates and small vertebrates, less often seeds. The voice is loud, one of the most perfect imitators among birds (the variety of sounds in the male's song is unusually great). Polygams, builds a nest, incubates a clutch and feeds chicks only a female.Nest is massive, spherical with a lateral entrance, hidden among dense grass, bushes, root plexus, in a cliff niche, in a rock crevice or in trees, usually at a height. up to 2 m (sometimes up to 22 m). In clutch 1 (in A. rufescens 2), the egg is incubated for 36–50 days; juveniles leave the nest at the age of 28–47 days; the female takes care of them for another 6–9 months. The number of both species of bush birds is endangered, they are included in the IUCN Red List.

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