Bird Families

Swamp myrtle: description, useful properties, photo


Genus: Dendroica Gray = Myrtle Songbirds

Species: Dendroica caerulescens = Sinespine Forest Songbird
Species: Dendroica cerulea = Blue Forest Songbird
Species: Dendroica coronata = Myrtle tree, myrtle songbird
Species: Dendroica kirtlandii = Kirtland Songbird
Species: Dendroica magnoliae = Magnolia tree
Species: Dendroica pensylvanica = Yellow-capped Forest Songbird (Ill.)
Species: Dendroica petechia = Yellow arboreal, golden forest songbird
Species: Dendroica tigrina = Forest Tiger Songbird
Species: Dendroica townsendi = Shy Forest Songbird

Features of the

It is an evergreen shrub that grows up to 1 m in height, with straight, spreading grayish branches. It grows in sphagnum bogs and deciduous forests with high air humidity. Young shoots and leaves contain poison that is extremely dangerous for goats and sheep.

This plant has many names, including "common marsh myrtle". It is due to the fact that it grows only in a swampy area, and its leaves in shape resemble the foliage of a Mediterranean plant - myrtle, which in central Russia is most often found in the form of a houseplant.

Hamedafna marsh is found mainly in the northern hemisphere (both North America and Eurasia). In Russia, the plant is widespread from the Arctic to the southern borders of the taiga. It is one of a kind. Swamp myrtle is higher in the southern borders of the growing area, and lower in the north. Hamedafna's escape is woody and straight. The age of individual specimens of marsh myrtle sometimes reaches 50 years or more. According to some data, the age of the root system of a plant can be hundreds of years, the aerial part - young shoots - for decades.

The shoots of the marsh myrtle are brownish and gray, if you look at them through a magnifying glass, you can see whitish scales. Its leaves are small, from 1 to 5 cm long, they are located on the stem alternately, one after the other. The shape is elliptical, elongated with slightly pointed edges. Leaves can be tightly pressed against the stem or loose. Their peculiarity lies in the fact that they are very hard and covered with small dry scales. The upper part of the leaves of the marsh myrtle has a dark green color, and the lower part is a lighter brownish shade. The scales are clearly visible even visually. The central vein of the leaves is slightly depressed. The edges of the leaves are slightly curved inward. Another feature of this marsh plant is that the structure of the leaves resembles that of succulent plants that grow in dry conditions and are forced to save moisture. Tough leaves are a good adaptation to reduce water evaporation processes.

The reason for this adaptation is that in raised bogs, plants live in conditions of lack of moisture, despite the high humidity in these places. This is mainly due to the fact that the water is far under the layer of moss, and there is almost no water at the top, but oxygen is also absent below. As a result, the root system of marsh myrtle (photo from the text) is located close to the surface of the earth. That is, where there is practically no water.

The flowers of the plant are white. They are collected in small racemose inflorescences. One inflorescence has up to 25 bell-shaped flowers. The flower consists of five petals, 10 stamens and a pistil.

Why is marsh myrtle useful?

This plant has numerous medicinal properties. When rubbed, the leaves give off a strong aroma that resembles the smell of pine needles. This is how the myrtle essential oil contained in the plant smells. In addition to it, it contains flavonoids, polyphenols, camphor, saponins and other beneficial substances.

In folk medicine

This evergreen shrub has been used in folk medicine for many decades. A variety of tinctures, decoctions, lotions are made from it. For example, for the treatment and prevention of various colds, it is very useful to chew fresh myrtle leaves.Antimicrobial components in its composition help to destroy disease-causing microbes in the body.

In the apartment

Swamp myrtle in an apartment perfectly cleans the air, which occurs through the release of phytoncides by leaves - substances that have bactericidal properties. Surprisingly, one small tree can kill up to 30% of streptococci and 50% of staphylococci. The chemical composition of the plant includes more than ten useful chemicals that have a beneficial effect on the human body.

Medicinal properties of marsh myrtle

The plant is characterized by the following beneficial properties:

  • strengthens the immune system,
  • helps in the treatment of colds,
  • used for various diseases of the respiratory organs,
  • has a wound healing effect,
  • is a natural antiseptic,
  • has an analgesic effect,
  • actively fights various benign tumors,
  • is a highly effective anti-allergic agent.

In addition, myrtle oil is successfully used in clinical cosmetology. Cosmetics using marsh myrtle oil moisturizes and nourishes skin cells, eliminates acne and its consequences. In addition, this essential oil perfectly strengthens the hair, normalizes its structure.

Lotions for skin pathologies

For skin diseases, lotions from myrtle broth are successfully used. With the development of sore throat, rinsing with such a decoction will bring significant relief and give a quick positive effect. They will help children most well.

Tincture of marsh myrtle is excellent for the treatment of herpes infections. For this, a cotton swab dipped in the infusion of this medicinal plant is applied to the affected areas of the body.

With eye pathologies

In case of eye pathologies, lotions are made from the infusion of medicinal myrtle directly to the eyes. In addition, it is useful to take medicinal tinctures by mouth. Alcoholic infusions with marsh myrtle help with purulent otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia, etc.

A few drops of the essential oil of this medicinal plant, dissolved in hot water, is a good remedy for inhalation for colds. Rubbing it into the gums effectively helps in the occurrence of periodontal disease. Myrtle oil is a good rubbing agent for a variety of colds and infectious diseases.

Plant harm

Despite the many beneficial properties of this medicinal plant, if it is used incorrectly, some negative consequences may arise.

You shouldn't grow this tree in the bedroom because essential oils can trigger headaches or sleep disturbances. It is also not recommended to consume plant-based products in the afternoon, as they can cause excessive nervous excitement.

The use of funds based on marsh myrtle is contraindicated in the following cases:

  • during pregnancy,
  • women during lactation,
  • with individual intolerance,
  • in old age.

We have given a detailed description of the marsh myrtle.

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Number of species in "sister" taxa

viewMyrtle Singer (Forest Myrtle Singer)Setophaga coronataLinnaeus1766
familyArboreal (Forest Songbirds, American Warblers)ParulidaeWetmore1947
suborder / suborderSingersOscines
detachment / orderPasserinesPasseriformes
superorder / superorderNew Sky Birds (Typical Birds)NeognathaePycroft1900
infraclassReal birds (Fan-tailed birds)NeornithesGadow1893
subclassCilegrud Birds (Fan-tailed Birds)Carinatae Ornithurae (Neornithes) Ornithurae (Neornithes)Merrem1813
subtype / subdivisionVertebrates (Cranial)Vertebrata (Craniata)Cuvier1800
type / departmentChordatesChordata
supertypeCoelomic animalsCoelomata
sectionBilaterally symmetrical (Three-layer)Bilateria (Triploblastica)
subkingdomMulticellular animalsMetazoa
A source :244
Life span
Maximum:10 years
Sexual maturity
Males in:
Females in:
The weight
At birth:
Adult:12 g
Pregnancy / incubation:12 days
Reproduction frequency:Once a year
Sources of
244 :AnAge. The Animal Aging & Longevity Database.
Details about the life cycle of a view on AnAge

Interspecific bird conflicts are explained by competition and hybridization

Many animals jealously guard their territory from the invasion of strangers. This is logical when it comes to a representative of its own species. However, an individual belonging to a different species often becomes the object of attack. For a long time, it was believed that such interspecific territoriality was just a by-product of intraspecific territoriality. In other words, the owner attacks the stranger by mistake, mistaking him for a relative.

However, new evidence suggests that protecting an area from other species is adaptive. It can arise and persist when different species compete for a particular resource, such as food or shelter.

A team of zoologists led by Jonathan P. Drury of the University of Durham conducted a massive study of interspecies competition for territory using the example of North American passerines. After analyzing the literature, scientists found that this behavior is typical for 104 of their species. This is 32.3 percent of the total number of passerine species in North America. Thus, interspecies competition is more widespread than previously thought.

According to the authors, in most cases, birds come into conflict over territory with a representative of one specific species. There are several factors that increase the chances of forming a pair of competing species. For example, birds that live in the same biotope, have similar sizes and nest in hollows are more likely to be involved in conflicts over territory. For species belonging to the same family, another factor plays an important role - the probability of hybridization. If two species are capable of interbreeding with each other, their males are likely to react aggressively to each other.

Based on the data obtained, the researchers concluded that interspecific conflicts for territory among birds do not arise by mistake. This behavior is an adaptive response to competition for a limited resource, as well as a mechanism to prevent hybridization between closely related species.

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