Very attractive, very rare and requiring the constant attention of an experienced aquarist, graceful and similar to a bright green sea urchin is the magnificent aquatic plant Eriocaulon synerium, taxonomic name Eriocaulon sp. "Cinereum". It is quite difficult to grow it, but if it is present in the collection of the aquarium, it simply overshadows other plants with its decorative appearance, you cannot take your eyes off it.
The homeland of Eriokaulon synerium is the warm, well-warmed by the sun reservoirs of southern and eastern Asia, temporary reservoirs of rice fields and numerous swamps, large areas of coastal forests flooded by floods of local rivers. Here it grows everywhere and spreads well in tropical latitudes. But today, this underwater plant can also be found in European Italy, northern Africa, eastern Australia and the North American tropics.
This aquatic plant was first scientifically described in 1810 by the naturalist R. Brown. It belongs to the taxonomic family Eriocaulaceae, a suborder of cereals. Among 495 species belonging to the genus "eriocaulons", this particular plant is suitable for growing in aquariums. The name of the plant comes from the word "Erion", of Greek origin, literally meaning "wool".
Eriocaulon synerium is a hedgehog-like graceful rosette with a large number of up to 1 mm thin emerald-green needles up to 5-7 cm long. The leaves of the plant are linear with well-visible parallel venation, sitting tightly on the rosette. Eriocaulon has a well-developed root system, about three times the length of the needle-leaves. It blooms with snow-white funnel-shaped flowers, which makes the plant even more beautiful and attractive.
Eriocaulon synerium reproduces with the help of peduncles, on which small young rosettes are formed. Sometimes, under good growing conditions, the mother bush can divide into several, up to 8-10 growth points. The aquarist can carefully divide the mother bush according to the growth points and plant the young rosettes. You can also divide a healthy, strong bush into two or four parts yourself with a sharp knife. After planting, each individual part of the mother bush will grow into an adult rosette.
Growing Eriocaulon synerium is better suited for aquariums with low walls and a water level of up to 30-35 cm. In a tall aquarium, plant growth slows down, although it grows slowly, up to 10 cm in six months. The most favorable temperature regime for growing a plant will be +26 0 С - +28 0 С, with water hardness dH 1-8 and acidity pH 5.5-6.8. The plant responds well to the purity of the aquarium water, additional fertilizing with micronutrient fertilizers and CO 2.
For the roots of this aquatic plant in an aquarium, a soil layer of at least 7-8 cm is required from river coarse sand, black quartz and small pebbles. Before planting the eriocaulon synerium outlet, a small amount of peat must be put in the ground under it. The lighting of the aquarium for growing this plant should be bright, its intensity should strive for 1 W / l for up to 12 hours a day.
It is also necessary to ensure that the delicate green needle-like leaves of the eriocaulon are not covered with small algae. Such a bloom of the smallest algae can destroy this beautiful plant. If an experienced aquarist can automate the life process, temperature, illumination, CO2 supply, then his work on growing eriocaulon synerium will quickly bear fruit and a wonderful aquatic plant will delight you with good growth and excellent appearance.
Eurasia from Western Europe to the valley of the upper Ob in the region of Novosibirsk and Barnaul, in the center of European Russia to the north to the Tver and Ryazan regions (1). Information about the distribution in the Moscow region is sketchy due to the secretive lifestyle of the species. At the beginning of the XX century. was found in Zaraisk, Klin and Serpukhov districts (2).
In the 1980s-1990s. nested in Dmitrovsky district (3), repeatedly observed during nesting time on ponds of fish farms in Lotoshinsky (4-6), Istra (7) and Odintsovsky districts (9), on Teryaevsky ponds in Volokolamsky district (8) There were known finds in the vicinity of the lake. Senezh. In recent years found nesting in Mytishchi, Odintsovsky, Lotoshinsky districts (10). There are separate encounters during the nesting time in the Oka floodplain in the Lukhovitsky District (11) and in the Noginsk District (12), as well as irregular stops during the spring migration at the Teryaevskie ponds in the Volokolamsk District (13).
The number and tendencies of its change
There is information only about single encounters. Probably rare everywhere. The population in the region appears to be stable at the present time. However, its significant fluctuations are possible depending on the specific climatic conditions of the year.
Features of biology and ecology
Inhabits stagnant and low-flowing water bodies with sedge, reed and reed thickets, including fish farm ponds. Leads a secretive, twilight or nocturnal lifestyle. Strictly territorial. Cases of polygyny are apparently possible. Small carriages sometimes form settlements, where nests are located only 10-20 m apart. Clutch contains 6-9 (up to 11) eggs. Incubation lasts 15-21 days. Both parents take part in incubating and driving the brood. Mixed food - various invertebrates, as well as seeds and vegetative parts of plants (2, 14, 15).
Periodic fluctuations in the water level in reservoirs, the destruction of thickets of aquatic and near-water vegetation, drainage reclamation, an increase in the number of small near-water mammals, to a small extent - hunting.
Security measures taken
It is listed in the Red Data Books of the adjacent regions: Tver (2002), Ryazan (2001), Yaroslavl (2004) and Kaluga (2006). The habitats of the species in the Moscow region are located on the territory of the Zavidovo State Complex and, possibly, the Zhuravlinnaya Rodina nature reserve in the Taldomsky district, it is possible that it will inhabit other protected areas of the region.
Recommendations for preserving the species in natural conditions
Preservation of the fish farm system existing in the Moscow region. The prohibition of the destruction of thickets of aquatic and near-water vegetation in the breeding grounds of the species, if necessary, the organization of specially protected natural areas.
Recommended and cited literature
Red Data Book of the Moscow Region 1. Stepanyan, 2003, 2. Ptushenko, Inozemtsev, 1968, 3. Kislenko et al., 1990a, 4. Mishchenko, Sukhanova, 1990, 5. Nikolaev et al., 1994, 6. These authors of the essay, 7. Voronetsky, 1998, 8. Tsvetkov, Kovylov, 1990, 9. E.A. Koblik, pers. communication, 10.G.S. Eremkin, personal commun., 11. Birds of Moscow and Moscow region 2004, 2006, 12. Birds of Moscow and Moscow region-2001, 2003, 13. Birds of Moscow and Moscow region-2003, 2005, 14. Spangenberg, 1951b, 15. Kurochkin, Koshelev, 1987. Compiled by A .AND. Mosalov.
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