Bird Families

Hawks, or hawks - a subfamily of birds of prey from the hawk family


Other name - Small hawk.

Latin name -Accipiter nisus.
The English name is Eurasian Sparrowhawk. Northern Sparrowhawk.

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In the Brateevskaya and Maryinskaya floodplains, you can observe their nomadic life. They come to the coastal slope near Kapotnya. They stay for the winter every second year. Maybe these are sick birds.

Since 2008, the Sparrowhawk has regularly appeared on Maryinskaya Embankment, more often in winter. In spring, summer and winter, the Sparrowhawk regularly appears in residential areas. Apparently hunting.

In Moscow, the Sparrowhawk is not numerous, it was seen on migration and wintering.

Moscow settles only in forest and forest-park areas with an area of, as a rule, no less than 100 hectares, with a relatively well-preserved forest environment.

In urban conditions, it prefers thickened 40-50-year-old crops of pine and spruce, occasionally nests in middle-aged mixed stands with a significant participation of these species, sometimes in dense larch forests, as well as in aspen and birch forests not older than 40-50 years.

As a rule, nests are placed in the middle part of the crown near the trunk at a height of 5 to 10 meters.

There are usually fewer chicks in the number of laid eggs, which is sometimes due to the unexpected frightening of an incubating bird by people resting in city forest parks: when it leaves a nest that does not have a tray, one or more eggs often fall out.

In cases of loss of clutch in the initial period of incubation, birds usually begin re-nesting.

The food is based on small passerine birds.

In couples nesting in the immediate vicinity of urban areas, house and field sparrows predominate in the diet.

Habitat: Forests

Found in Moscow: Losiny Ostrov, Kuzminsky forest park, Butovsky forest park, Serebryanoborskoye forestry, Mitinsky forest park, Bitsevsky forest, Troparevsky forest park, Aleshkinsky forest, Northern forest park, Izmailovo, Biryulevsky forest park, Khimki forest park, LOByev, GBS mountains, Voronezh.

Genus: True Hawks

Sedentary view. Skillful flyer. An energetic and agile predator. Not a single small bird will leave him.

This is a half-sized copy of a large hawk - both in color, and in appearance, and in habits. The Sparrowhawk is a small bird of prey with short and wide wings and a long tail that helps it maneuver through the trees. Females can be 25% longer than males - there is often a big difference between the sexes in birds.

The adult male reaches 29-34 cm in length and 59-64 cm in wingspan. Both partners are dark gray in color, but some acquire a bluish tint. The lower part has pale gray stripes and a reddish tint, when viewed from the side in the distance the bird has a reddish color. The iris of the sparrowhawk is orange-yellow or reddish-orange. The female is much larger than the male. It grows up to 35-41 cm and has a span of 67-80 cm, and weighs 186-345 grams. It has a dark brown or grayish brown upper side and a red brown lower side, as well as light yellow eyes.

His specific Latin name is very accurate: in weight it is almost five times less than a goshawk. And the specific Russian name, as in the case of the goshawk, is unfortunate. And for the same reason. Quail is a prey that is inaccessible to the small hawk, and during the nesting time, the vast majority of broods do not even appear in the food spectra. Sparrowhawks hunt for quails only during the autumn migration in the southern regions of the country (North Caucasus, Crimea, Ukraine, southern Siberia). In ancient times, hunting for quails with hunting sparrows flourished in these places, hence their name.

The natural role of the small hawk in other languages ​​(English, German, Italian) is more precisely expressed: "sparrow". It is a pity that this name, which was often used by domestic ornithologists at the beginning of our century, did not take root.

The small hawk is widespread in all our forests, however, in contrast to the large hawk, it prefers edges and especially small forests. By the way, some researchers, not without reason, believe that the sparrowhawk is hiding in a dense perch forest to nest from the most severe persecution of its "elder brother" - the goshawk. He makes nests small, like those of a crow, thin, sometimes even translucent. There is never any greenery in the tray, only thin twigs, pieces of bark and dry needles. It hides nests so skillfully that it is difficult to find them. If the hawks are not disturbed, from year to year they will nest in the same small area with a diameter of 100-200 meters. But a new nest is made every year, so that within such a site it is easy to find up to ten old nests at a distance of 20-50 meters from each other.

Sparrowhawk females are almost twice as large as males. This species lives mainly in forest areas and is distributed almost throughout Eurasia. They prey on small and medium sized birds. Due to the use of pesticides, in the middle of the 20th century, the number of sparrowhawks reached a historical minimum, but since then its populations have grown again.

Emits a quick scream similar to kick-kick-kick, but very rarely.

The first name - accipiter, comes from the Latin language, which means a hawk and the second, also from Latin, nisus - quail.

The species identifies six subspecies:

  • Described by Karl Linnaeus in 1758, distributed in Europe and from the West of Asia to Siberia and Iran. During the winter, the northern population moves south to the Mediterranean, northeastern Africa, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan.
  • Described by Samuel Tickel in 1833. It is found from the central and eastern parts of Siberia to Kamchatka and Japan, as well as from the south to the north of China. All birds migrate, from Pakistan and India eastward through Southeast Asia and from the south of China to Japan and Korea, some even fly to Africa.
  • Described by Allen Octavius ​​Hume in 1869. Occurs from the Afghan mountains to the Himalayas and from the south of Tebet to Western China.
  • Described by Otto Kleinschmidt in 1990. Abode Sardinia and Costa Rica. Smaller, darker top and more streaks on the bottom.
  • Described by Richard Boudler Sharpe in 1890. Inhabitant of the Canary Islands and the Madeira Islands.
  • Described by Erlanger in 1897. Inhabitant of northwest Africa and northern Sahara. much smaller than the nominative subspecies A. n. nisus.

Widely distributed in the temperate and subtropical zones of the Old World. Birds from the colder regions of Europe and migrate south or southeast to Asia for the winter, while some fly to northern Africa. Lives in various forest areas, but does not fly deep into the forest, more often near open places.

The Lesser Hawk is a sedentary bird and starts nesting quite late, namely in May. The nest is loose, rather deep, built of randomly laid branches of needles, and sometimes dry grass. The diameter of the nest is 380-400 mm and the height is about the same. Fresh twigs are not present in the building, which makes the nest different from that built by the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis).

With a desperate cry, the female rushes through the branches directly at the man at the nest, folding (not always!) A few centimeters (blows to the back of the head of one such defender are still remembered). Her attacks, especially if there are no other people below, roll in continuously. The male also participates in defense as much as he can, encouraging his girlfriend with desperate screams. 50 meters from the nest.

The nest of a small hawk can be found in the remains of eaten prey - small birds. The female lays 4-6 dull white eggs with buffy or dark brown spots of various sizes in the nest. The size of the eggs is 37-43 x 30-33 mm. Incubation of eggs lasts about 32 days. Chicks hatch in late June - early July. In the first half of August, chicks are already able to fly. [

Sparrowhawk clutch is large, 4-6 white eggs with large spots. Unlike buzzards and eagles, hawk chicks live in the nest quite peacefully, even the youngest, sometimes half or three times smaller, does not touch the chick. Sparrowhawk's four fledglings are a common brood. A good example of the fact that the intrafamilial aggressiveness of chicks, the so-called cannibalism, arose only in predators with an unstable food base.

Sparrowhawk hunts various small birds, including insectivores. And if so - without reasoning, he was previously referred to as harmful predators. The studies of L. Tinbergen in Holland, which have become classical, have shown that even removing up to 6-8% of the population of some birds annually, the sparrowhawk does not cause a decrease in their number. The same was revealed in our conditions, however, with a smaller amount of withdrawal (the number of sparrowhawks in our country is lower than in Holland). And how can a different result be expected if in the middle lane, for example, one brood of a sparrowhawk accounts for up to 50-100 thousand (!) Small birds in the summer. There are plenty to choose from.

The total annual catch of a pair of sparrowhawks with a brood is about 2 thousand birds, that is, the total harvest carried out by sparrowhawks does not exceed 2-4% of the number of passerines and other small birds. The accusations against the little hawk were thus completely unfounded.

Hawks living near populated areas most often hunt sparrows (up to 15-20% of the food spectrum in summer and over 30% in winter), justifying their name "sparrows". Some individuals actually specialize in catching extremely watchful birds. True, the city's freeloaders have apparently lost some of their vigilance. In one of the outlying districts of Moscow, for example, all winter we observed how a female sparrowhawk, regularly flying around the neighborhoods of houses, successfully hunted sparrows consumed by feeding.

Thrushes, finches, tits, larks and other small birds play a significant role in the prey of sparrowhawks. They even catch tiny beetles and wrens. The largest prey of the sparrowhawk is the rock dove and the wood pigeon, very rarely takes small animals.

The number of the small hawk in our forests is noticeably higher than that of the large one - about 4-5 pairs, and in Western Europe up to 20-30 pairs per 100 square kilometers of forest. According to our rough estimates, about 800-1000 pairs nest on the territory of the Moscow Region, for example.

About 20-30 years ago, the number of sparrowhawks was decreasing everywhere, mainly due to the merciless shooting. In Europe, moreover, the populations of the little hawk were negatively affected by the widespread use of pesticides. When hunting insectivorous birds, which in turn ate insects poisoned by pesticides, hawks accumulated high concentrations of DDT and other highly toxic pesticides in their body tissues, which led to a decrease in their fertility.

The exclusion of the sparrowhawk from the lists of harmful birds, as well as the prohibition in most European countries of the use of toxic pesticides, stopped the decline in its numbers. In the Vladimir region, for example, over 10 years (1960-1970), it even increased slightly, which, by the way, did not in the slightest affect the populations of passerine birds.

If the big hawk is lonely in our fauna, then the “family” of small hawks has 4 more species: the small sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis), which lives in the south of Siberia and the Far East, the short-toed hawk (A. soloensis), recently discovered on its nesting site in southern Primorye , a tyvik (A. badius), inhabiting Central Asia, and a European tyvik (A. brevipes), living in the south of the European part of the USSR.

The state of the European Tuvik population is extremely alarming. Although its range on the map is quite extensive (it covers Moldova, Ukraine, the Don and the Middle Volga region to the Ural River), everywhere this predator is extremely rare. Suffice it to say that it has not been known about reliable cases of its nesting in our country for more than 10 years.

Ⓘ Hawks

Hawks, or hawks, are a subfamily of birds of prey from the hawk family. In a broader sense, any bird from this subfamily is called a hawk. On the territory of Russia, the sparrowhawk and the goshawk are widespread.

1. Etymology of the name

The word hawk goes back to the Proto-Slavic form * astreb, formed from the stem * astr- with the suffix -eb- associated with ablaut alternation with praslav. * -ǫb-, as in the word dove. The etymology of the part * astr- is not precisely clear, it is usually associated with and e. * Ōk̑ros "sharp", "sharp", "fast", cf. similar education in lat. accipiter "bird of prey", "hawk"

  • Saudi Arabian Hawks. الصقور السعودية eng. The Saudi Hawks is an aerobatic team of the Royal Saudi Air Force. Flies six
  • War of the Black Hawk eng. Black Hawk War is an armed conflict between the United States and Indian tribes that occurred in 1832. Sauk Indian tribes
  • Hawk bulg. Hawk is a village in Bulgaria. Located in the Kardzhali region, it is part of the Kardzhali community. The population is 368 people. In the local office
  • The Daugava hawks are Latvian. Daugavas Vanagi is a Latvian nationalist, anti-Soviet organization. Established after World War II in the camp
  • Hawks Hawks - a subfamily of birds of prey from the hawk family Hawks - a 1987 movie Settlements in Russia Hawks - a village in Ostrovsky
  • Lady hawk eng. Ladyhawke is an American feature film. The evil bishop - the sorcerer put a spell on the beautiful Isabeau in love with each other and
  • Vladislav Viktorovich Yastrebov is a music bibliographer. Born on July 22, 1960 in the city of Chimkent, South Kazakhstan region. Kazakh SSR. In 1975, after
  • Star Hawk eng. Starhawk also known as Stakar Ogord eng. Stakar Ogord is a character appearing in Marvel Comics
  • Black hawk eng. Black Hawk Down is a historical war drama based on the real events of the battle in Mogadishu 1993 Filmed based on the book of Mark
  • Black Hawk eng. Black Hawk or Makatavimeshekaka 1767 1767 - 1838 - military leader of the Sauk Indian tribe. Participated in the Anglo - American War
  • Midnight Hawks eng. Midnight Hawks is a Finnish Air Force aerobatic team formed in 1997 at Kauhava airbase. The team uses
  • Sergey Nikolaevich Yastrebov b. June 30, 1954, Shcherbakov, Yaroslavl Region - Russian politician, Governor of the Yaroslavl Region
  • See also: Special Purpose Units of the Russian Federation OSN Yastreb - Special Purpose Division of the Office of the Federal Execution Service
  • Sea hawk can mean: Sea hawk is a novel by the English writer Raphael Sabatini. Sea Hawk - 1924 American feature film
  • Hawks eng. Hawks is a British tragicomedy directed by Robert Miller. The film is based on a short story written by Barry Gibb and David English. Lawyer
  • The Hudson Hawk is an American comedy film directed by Michael Lehmann with Bruce Willis in the title role. Filming took place from July 9 to December 3
  • On migrations, striped hawks huddle in small flocks. In early April - mid-May it returns to the north. In summer, the striped hawk huddles in the pine
  • wings white with dark gray stripes. The tail is dark with black and gray stripes. Hawks began to die out at the beginning of the 20th century. They presumably disappeared in the 1950s.
  • Dark song hawk lat. Melierax metabates is an African bird from the hawk family. The dark songhawk reaches a length of 38 to 51 cm.
  • Hawks - a village in the Vyazemsky district of the Smolensk region of Russia. It is part of the Kaidakovsky rural settlement. Population - 4 inhabitants 2007 Located

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1. Large hawk, or goshawk.

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