Bird Families

Brown Warbler / Phylloscopus fuscatus

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Latin name:Phylloscopus inornatus
Detachment:Passerine
Family:Slavkovy

Appearance and behavior... The smallest of the warblers nesting in our region, slightly larger than the beetle. Body length 9–10.5 cm, wingspan 16–18 cm, weight 5–11 g. Compact, with relatively short beak, wings and tail: the head seems to be relatively large. A small fork can be seen at the end of the tail. It is very mobile, jumps over thin branches, hangs in the air, collecting small food from them, often flips in the crowns, and sometimes in the lower vegetation layer, while regularly giving voice and twitching folded wings.

Description... With the characteristic appearance of the warbler, greenish with a brownish tint of the top and light gray with a yellowish tinge on the bottom, the abundance of contrasting light details is striking. On the wing there are two wide yellow or yellowish stripes, the upper one is shorter than the lower one and in the middle of summer, as a result of drifting, it can almost completely disappear, the eyebrows are wide, long, yellowish to varying degrees, slightly widen behind the eye, and in front they reach the base of the beak, on the folded wing there are wide light, yellow or almost white edges on the innermost flight feathers. In addition to the light elements listed, yellow is seen on the crease of the wing, on the chest and neck, and on the sides of the head.

A light parting can be discerned on the crown of the head, slightly contrasting with the color of the rest of the top. A thin dark horizontal stripe passes through the eye. The cheek is darkish, with small light specks, the beak is dark, with a pinkish base of the mandible, the eyes are dark. Legs are brown with pinkish. In young birds, the top is more brownish, the bottom is without yellow, the stripes on the wing are wide, greenish-yellow. In fresh autumn feathers, both young and old birds look much brighter - yellower and greener than during the nesting period. It visually differs from other warblers of our region in size, by the presence of two light stripes on the wing (the front one can wear out and disappear before molting) and wide light edges, and sometimes tops, on the inner flight feathers, as well as the color of the head, and differs in voice - in call and song.

Vote... The call, which is uttered almost constantly, sounds like a low, usually two-syllable "ti wuxi" or "ti-all (t)"With a decrease and then an increase in tone. The song is a series of low, high and clear whistling signals "tzivii, sisivii, sivi-is, civit. "With separate very high, almost ultrasounds, it resembles the singing of a hazel grouse.

Distribution, status... The nesting area covers the territory from the northeast of European Russia to the Far East, Central Asia to the south to the Himalayas, the center of China. Wintering grounds are located in South and Southeast Asia. In most of the range, it is a common or numerous species; in European Russia, it is not numerous. Appears relatively regularly in the northern part of European Russia and in European countries during autumn migrations, in September or October. Arrives late, in the Cis-Urals appears in June, departs in August or September.

Lifestyle... Inhabits various varieties of taiga forests, except for the densest areas, copses, burnt-out forests, forest-tundra, gallery forests along rivers and streams. Nesting in small settlements with an increased density of pairs is characteristic. Nest of plant materials lined with wool, but not feathers, builds on the ground, immersed in moss cushions, in niches or under the cover of dead wood. In clutch there are 5–7 eggs, white with reddish-brown specks and spots. Incubation lasts 11–13 days; newborn chicks have several grayish puffs on their heads. Both parents feed, chicks hatch at the age of about 12 days. In the west of the European part, two very similar closely related species can be found, distributed in the west of Europe and in the eastern Mediterranean.

Light-bellied warblerPhylloscopus bonelli in external structure, it is similar to a ratchet, but smaller (body length 11 cm) and much paler. The top of the head and the front part of the back are pale, brownish-gray, with a slight yellowish-green coating. The underside is white, with practically no yellow tint, with a faint dark bloom in the chest area. The loin, upper tail and margins of tail feathers and wing feathers are bright yellow-green. The sides of the head are light, the eyebrow is whitish, blurred. This species is registered in the Kaliningrad region.

The second very similar view is eastern light-bellied warblerPhylloscopus orientalis, previously considered a subspecies Ph. bonelli, can be found in the south of European Russia (avian recorded in Crimea). This shape is distinguished by an even lighter gray coloration of the top of the head and back, as well as a shorter beak and tail. A brown warbler occasionally flies to the east of the region Phylloscopus fuscatusbreeding in Siberia and eastern Asia. It differs from the majority of monochromatic warblers that do not have stripes on the wing, it differs in the absence of yellow and green tones in color, a distinct eyebrow, rounded tail and wings, and a brownish-buffy underside of the wing.

From thick-billed warblers - smaller (body length 11–12 cm), more graceful outlines, relatively long and thin beak, light undertail and the fact that it moves less often on the ground. The song is measured, consists of chirping repetitive series “chiiv, chiiv, chiiv. civi, civi, civi. tweet-tweet-tweet. »With short pauses. Calls, screams of alarm - a sharp, crackling sound "chche, chche», «receipt" or "check-check". Prefers forest edges, clearings, swamps, small forests and willows, subalpine crooked forests. Closely related to the shrub layer, often stays near the water. Sings on the tops of bushes, low trees, less often in the depths of the middle tier.

Single encounters in the region are known thick-billed, or vocal warblerPhylloscopus schwarzii, common in the south of Siberia and the Far East. It somewhat resembles a warbler due to its large size (body length 13 cm), an elongated rounded tail, rounded wings, and plumage tone. There are no stripes on the wing, the underwings are buffy-yellowish, the undertail is buffy. It differs from a brown warbler by a shortened and thickened beak, a large head, a wide and long white-ocher eyebrow, the presence of yellow-olive tones in color, and a beige undertail. From the Siberian chiffchaff - in size, build, very light legs, a distinct eyebrow. Song - short sonorous trills separated by pauses "Tew-Tew-Tew-Tew. ir-ir-ir-ir. twi-twi-twi-twi-twi. de-de-de-de-de. ", In structure is similar to the song of the fossil warbler, but more complicated. Calls - whistling "tweet-tweet", Screams of alarm - low sharp"tsek", A set of crackles, gurgling. Prefers shrub thickets, forests with thickened undergrowth, overgrown clearings and burnt-out areas. It secretly keeps in the lower and middle tier, sings in the thick of bushes, on the tops of low trees, twitching its tail. Often moves along the ground.

In autumn, European Russia also regularly flies king warblerPhylloscopus proregulus, widespread in Siberia and the Far East. It is close to the lightning bloom, but even smaller (body length 9 cm), is more compact, brighter and more contrasting in color: it has a clear yellow-red parting on the crown of the head and a lemon spot on the lower back. It unmistakably differs from the rest of the warblers in very small sizes, a shortened tail with a noticeable fork, two bright yellow stripes on the wing, a contrasting pattern on the head, wings and lower back. It differs from the yellow-headed beetle (with which it is similar in behavior and size) by a clear yellow eyebrow, a spot on the lower back, and an elegant build. The song consists of sonorous knees of different timbre and tempo, repeated in a random sequence almost without pauses "tweet-tweet-tweet. piti-piti-piti. chiv-chiv-chiv. tiri-riri-ri. bye, bye, bye. drrrrr. ". Call - highchuyit", Reminiscent of the call of a summer lightning. Inhabits high-trunk taiga forests. In search of food, it can hover in fluttering flight in front of the end branches and needles, like a kinglet. The singing bird sits on top or flies in the crown.

Zarichka, or warbler-warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus)

Talovka warbler (Phylloscopus borealis)

Appearance: The upper side is greenish-brown, on the wing there are two transverse light stripes, one of which is indistinct, above the eye is a yellowish-white eyebrow, the bottom is off-white with a yellowish tinge on the chest.
The size: Less sparrow.

Features: Talovka differs from other warblers in the field in its voice. In appearance, at a distance, it is practically indistinguishable from a green warbler. Somewhat larger than her, and on the wing there are two light stripes.

Habits: She is very mobile. It stays alone or in pairs in the crowns of trees or in the thick of bushes.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Coniferous and mixed forests, thickets of bushes.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground, rarely on a stump or on the trunk of a fallen tree.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: White, sometimes with red dots.

Warbler Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus)

Appearance: Very small warbler. The upper body, wings and tail are brownish-green, above the eye, and sometimes in the middle of the head, there are light stripes, across the wing there are two light greenish stripes, the underside of the body is whitish.
The size: Much less sparrow.

Features: The boletus differs from the chiffchaff with a greenish uppertail and stripes on the head, from other chiffchaffs - in a smaller size.

Habits: Zarnichka is very mobile. It is kept alone or in pairs.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Various types of forest in the plains and in the mountains.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground in the form of a hut.
Egg laying time: June
Eggs color and size: White with red dots.

King warbler (Phylloscopus proregulus)

Appearance: Very small warbler. The upper body is olive green, the head is brownish, the wings and tail are brown with green longitudinal stripes, there are two wide yellowish stripes across the wing, the eyebrow, the stripe in the middle of the head and the stripe on the upper tail are yellow, the lower body is grayish-white with a yellow coating on the sides and abdomen.
The size: Much less sparrow.

Features: It differs from the garnet by its bright yellow uppertail and stripes on the head.

Habits: It is kept alone and in pairs.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Coniferous and mixed taiga, on the plains and in the mountains.
Location of the socket and its description: On a tree in the shape of a hut.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: White with grayish and reddish-brown spots.

Brown warbler (Phylloscopus fuscatus)

Appearance: The upper body, wings and tail are brownish with a rufous bloom on the loin, the underside is brownish-whitish, the eyebrow is buffy-whitish.
The size: Less sparrow.

Features: It differs from other warblers in dark brown color, from thick-billed warblers - in darker color.

Habits: It stays alone or in pairs on bushes and trees.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Forest and shrub belt in the mountains.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground, bush or tree low above the ground. In the form of a hut.
Egg laying time: May June
Eggs color and size: White.

Thick-billed warbler (Phylloscopus schwarzi)

Appearance: Quite a large chiffchaff. The upper body is olive-brown, the uppertail is yellowish-olive, the wings and tail are brown with longitudinal light edges on the feathers, the lower body is whitish, on the sides and undertail there is an olive-buffy bloom, the eyebrow is light buffy.
The size: Less sparrow.

Features: It differs from a brown warbler in a lighter color and a yellowish-olive uppertail.

Habits: Secretive bird. It usually keeps in the undergrowth, at the base of bushes and in the grass. The singing male sits down in the upper part of the crown, raises its beak upward, inflates its throat, stretches out on its legs and flutters its wings.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Light mixed and deciduous forests.
Location of the socket and its description: Low above the ground or in the grass. Spherical, slightly flattened.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: White with reddish spots.

Light-headed warbler (Phylloscopus coronatus)

Appearance: The upper body is grayish-greenish, the underparts are whitish, the undertail is yellow, the eyebrow is yellowish-white, there are two light stripes across the wing, and there is a light greenish stripe in the middle of the head.
The size: Less sparrow.

Features: It differs from other warblers in a light stripe on the head. Does not occur with greenwing.

Habits: It stays alone and in pairs in the crown of a tree.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Coniferous and mixed taiga, the lightest areas.
Location of the socket and its description: Among the lower creeping branches of trees or on the slopes.
Egg laying time: May June
Eggs color and size: White.

Pale-footed warbler (Phylloscopus tenellipes)

Appearance: Wings, tail and upper body are brownish with a more reddish uppertail, on the wing there are two light transverse stripes, the eyebrow is yellowish-white, the lower body is whitish with yellow patches. Legs are grayish-yellow-green.
The size: Less sparrow.

Features: It differs from other warblers in nature in song, close - in very light legs.

Habits: It is kept alone and in pairs.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Broad-leaved forests and thickets along river banks.

Indian warbler (Phylloscopus griseolus)

Appearance: Small warbler. The upper body, wings, tail, throat, chest and sides are grayish-brown, the abdomen is yellowish, the eyebrow is bright yellow.
The size: Less sparrow.

Features: It differs from other warblers by a bright yellow eyebrow on a dark head.

Habits: It keeps alone, in pairs and groups, mainly on stones.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

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